Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Asthma and COPD Inhalers That Contain Ozone-depleting CFCs to be Phased Out; Alternative Treatments Available

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SILVER SPRING, Md., April 13 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today announced, in accordance with longstanding U.S. obligations under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, seven metered-dose inhalers (MDI) used to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) will be gradually removed from the U.S. marketplace. These inhalers contain ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are propellants that move medication out of the inhaler and into the lungs of patients. Alternative medications that do not contain CFCs are available.

The affected products and their phase out schedule include:
Inhaler Medication
Last Date to be manufactured, sold or dispensed in U.S.
Manufacturer

Tilade Inhaler (nedocromil)
June 14, 2010
King Pharmaceuticals

Alupent Inhalation Aerosol (metaproterenol)
June 14, 2010
Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals

Azmacort Inhalation Aerosol (triamcinolone)
Dec. 31, 2010
Abbott Laboratories

Intal Inhaler (cromolyn)
Dec. 31, 2010
King Pharmaceuticals

Aerobid Inhaler System (flunisolide)
June 30, 2011
Forest Laboratories

Combivent Inhalation Aerosol (albuterol and ipratropium in combination)
Dec. 31, 2013
Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals

Maxair Autohaler (pirbuterol)
Dec. 31, 2013
Graceway Pharmaceuticals





Patients using the inhalers scheduled to be phased out should talk to their health care professional about switching to one of several alternative treatments currently available. Until then, patients should continue using their current inhaler medication.

CFCs are harmful because they deplete the ozone layer miles above the Earth that absorb some of the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. The United States has banned the general use of CFCs in consumer aerosols for decades, and eliminated the production of CFCs in the United States as of Jan. 1, 1996, except for certain limited uses, such as MDIs.

"During this transition, FDA wants to ensure that patients have access to safe and effective alternative medications to treat their asthma or COPD," said Badrul Chowdhury, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Rheumatology Products in FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. "We are currently working with professional societies and patient organizations to make sure patients understand which products will no longer be available and have information on which alternative medication might work best for them."

The CFC phase out is part of an international agreement to ban substances that deplete the Earth's ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and the U.S. Clean Air Act aim to protect the public health and the environment from the potentially negative effects of ozone depletion. Bans on products containing CFCs began in the late 1970s.

The decision to phase out the products is the latest in a series of decisions related to the removal of CFC inhaler products from the market as required by the Clean Air Act. The agency proposed to phase-out the seven remaining products in 2007 and reached a final decision after reviewing more than 4,000 public comments and information submitted as part of a public meeting.

For more information:
Seven Inhalers That Use CFCs Being Phased Out
http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm207864.htm
Phase-Out of CFC Metered-Dose Inhalers Containing flunisolide, triamcinolone, metaproterenol, pirbuterol, albuterol and ipratropium in combination, cromolyn, and nedocromil
http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/ucm193896.htm
Metered-Dose Inhalers Clean Air Act Information
http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/LawsActsandRules/ucm071523.htm
Drug Treatments for Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease that Do Not Use Chlorofluorocarbons
http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/ucm082370.htm
Media Inquiries: Erica Jefferson, 301-796-4988, erica.jefferson@fda.hhs.gov
Consumer Inquiries: 888-INFO-FDA

Tuesday, April 13, 2010

Sony Launches 'Road to Zero' Environmental Plan and Sets 2015 Mid-term Targets

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TOKYO, April 7 /PRNewswire/ -- Sony Corporation today announced its "Road to Zero" global environmental plan. The plan, which includes a long-term goal of achieving a zero environmental footprint by 2050, uses backcasting methods to set specific mid-term environmental targets for the next five years in line with that goal. Sony's definition of zero environmental footprint is not only limited to the neutralization of carbon emissions, but also extends to waste and use of finite materials such as oil-derived virgin plastics.

Targets are based on four environmental perspectives - climate change, resource conservation, control of chemical substances and biodiversity - across all product lifecycle stages, from research and development to recycling. The mid-term targets will be implemented globally across the Sony Group beginning in fiscal year 2011 (April 2011), and will extend through the end of fiscal year 2015 (March 2016), at which time new targets for the following 5 years will be set.

Specific mid-term targets include:

* 30% reduction in annual energy consumption of products (compared to fiscal 2008)
* 10% reduction in product mass (compared to fiscal 2008)
* 50% absolute reduction in waste generation (compared to fiscal 2000)
* 30% absolute reduction in water consumption (compared to fiscal 2000)
* 14% reduction in total CO2 emissions associated with all transportation and logistics (compared to fiscal 2008)
* 16% reduction in incoming parts packaging waste (compared to fiscal 2008)
* Increase of waste recycle ratio to 99% or more
* 5% reduction in utilization ratio of virgin oil-based plastics in products (compared to fiscal 2008)
* Assessment of impact of resource procurement and facility construction on biodiversity, and promotion of biodiversity programs such as groundwater cultivation
* Minimization of the risk of chemical substances through preventive measures; reduction in use of specific chemicals defined by Sony; and promotion of use of alternative materials

Click here to find out more!

"We are fully committed to putting our innovative spirit and technological expertise to use to help solve environmental challenges," said Sir Howard Stringer, Chairman, CEO and President of Sony Corporation. "From the development of new materials and energy-efficient technologies, to the introduction of better processes in manufacturing and production, we will work aggressively to meet the ambitious targets we are setting for ourselves and, at the same time, establish a model for others in our industries to follow."

Sony has already made significant progress in reducing its environmental impact around the world. Sony's European sites, for example, have reduced their CO2 emissions from electricity use and facility heating by approximately 93% between fiscal years 2000 and 2009. In addition, the majority of its BRAVIA TV range now carries the EU 'flower,' an eco-label introduced by the EU to certify greener, more environmentally friendly products that comply with strict ecological criteria.

Sony Europe is also a founding member of the 'European Recycling Platform' (ERP). Fully operational in 11 European countries, the ERP effectively manages end-of-life collection and recycling for all consumer electronics products. In 2008, approximately 60,000 tons of electronic waste were collected and recycled on behalf of Sony in 20 European countries.

In the U.S., Sony Electronics (SEL) was the first consumer electronics manufacturer to institute a nation-wide Take Back Recycling Program in 2007 through which consumers can recycle any Sony-branded product free of charge. To date, SEL has recycled more than 13,000 tons of electronic waste through its take back efforts.

In Japan, Sony is the only company that voluntarily collects used small-sized consumer electronics on an experimental basis jointly with a municipality, Kitakyushu City in southern Japan. Gold, silver, bronze and palladium are extracted from the products discarded by city residents and are subsequently reused by Sony. For example, the recycled gold was used in Sony's semiconductor chips that were then adopted for use in Sony Ericsson's "URBANO BARONE" mobile phone (available in Japan through KDDI Corporation since February 2010).

In addition, the new VAIO W eco edition, launched in most major global markets this year and designed to be the industry's most environmentally friendly laptop, features recycled plastic parts, an electronic manual and an innovative carry-bag that saves 10% in CO2 emissions during production.

Sony Pictures Entertainment, based in Culver City, CA, took an important step toward its zero waste goal in June 2009 by partnering with the City of Culver City in a first-of-its-kind organic waste composting program. Thanks to this program, the studio has already diverted up to 80% of its waste from landfills (as of December 2009). In addition, an estimated 8,559 set pieces were reused in 2009, saving over a million pounds (500 tons) of material and helping reduce impact on natural resources. That same year, the studio recycled 81 tons of electronic waste.

Sony's fiscal year 2015 targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and power consumption per product were reviewed and approved by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) as a renewal of the company's Climate Savers Programme commitments. Sony has been a member of the WWF Climate Savers Programme since 2006. The Programme was organized by WWF International to mobilize companies to cut greenhouse gas emissions.

To learn more about Sony Group's "Road to Zero," refer to: sony.net/SonyInfo/csr/eco/RoadToZero

About Sony Corporation

Sony Corporation is a leading manufacturer of audio, video, game, communications, key device and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. With its music, pictures, computer entertainment and on-line businesses, Sony is uniquely positioned to be the leading electronics and entertainment company in the world. Sony recorded consolidated annual sales of approximately $79 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2009. Sony Global Web Site: http://www.sony.net

SOURCE Sony Corporation of America

Source: PR Newswire

Monday, April 12, 2010

How to Identify Eco Friendly Products

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Sunday, April 11, 2010

TAG Heuer Celebrates 150th Anniversary With Event in Basel Honoring Environmental Activist, Actor Leonardo DiCaprio

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BASEL, Switzerland, March 19, 2010 /PRNewswire/ --

- TAG Heuer and Tesla Motors Embark on "Odyssey of Pioneers" World Tour

TAG Heuer today kicked off a celebration if its 150th anniversary at an invitation-only event for more than 600 guests, honoring actor and climate change activist Leonardo DiCaprio for his dedication to saving the environment. DiCaprio has an ongoing partnership with the company that benefits the NRDC and Green Cross International.

To view the Multimedia News Release, please click:

http://multivu.prnewswire.com/mnr/tagheuer/42906/

The evening - dedicated to the pioneering spirit of innovation - also served as the launch for the Odyssey of Pioneers - a unique travelling roadshow that will showcase TAG Heuer's finest timepieces of past, present and future in 15 cities, between March and October 2010.

As an Olympic flame, the tour will be lead by the new TAG Heuer Tesla Roadster, an exclusive model introduced by electric carmaker Tesla Motors at the Geneva Motor Show in early March 2010. This one-of-a-kind collector's car incorporates the defining TAG Heuer avant-garde design elements, and celebrates the core values of both brands: innovation, precision, prestige and performance.

Starting in Basel, "The Odyssey of Pioneers" will be the first round-the-world tour by a zero-emission GT car: 37,000 km/24,000 miles; six-months; 15 stops; 18 watches on show, one record to be scored.

Elon Musk, the founder and CEO of Tesla Motors, was at the wheel of the new vehicle when it made its grand entry on stage. "The engineers of both brands have worked hand-in-hand, convinced that performance-driven technology - whether on the wrist or on the road - must be part of any sustainable development," Musk said.

The night also served as the premiere of the Grand Carrera Pendulum, a 2010 concept watch that turns an immutable principle of mechanical watchmaking on its head - it is the first movement without a hairspring. Jean-Christophe Babin, president and CEO of TAG Heuer, explained how it works : "In the regulation system, we simply replaced the traditional hairspring with magnetic fields. TAG Heuer invented the oscillating pinion in 1887; the Mikrograph, the first counter that was accurate to a 100th of a second; and the V4, with its belt-driven transmission system. Now, we are introducing another major innovation, and another example of the pioneering spirit that has imbued us for a century and a half."

"Mastering time, this has been our challenge since 1860," said TAG Heuer Honorary Chairman Jack Heuer as he opened the celebration.

In his remarks, Leonardo DiCaprio - wearing the new Carrera 1887 - discussed his pride in being an ambassador for the company : "I am excited to be here to celebrate TAG's 150th birthday," said DiCaprio. "I am proud to be associated with a company that not only has a rich and storied history, but also understand the importance of doing good in the world. Our partnership, which enables people to buy a quality timepiece and help save the planet at the same time, is a model I hope other brands will follow."

At dawn on Friday, April 19, the TAG Heuer Tesla Roadster left Basel to carry out its task of taking 150 years of heritage around the world and write a new page in this wonderful story.

For further information concerning the products, please consult our press corner: http://presscorner.tagheuer.com/

To chart the Odyssey in real time and read about the drivers and events, please visit: http://www.odyssey.tagheuer.com and http://www.teslamotors.com/odyssey

In 2010, TAG Heuer proudly celebrates 150 years of pioneering Swiss watchmaking. Founded in Saint-Imier in 1860 by Edouard Heuer, TAG Heuer has set many major milestones of high-end watchmaking, especially in the field of chronographs and ultimate precision. Today, one of the largest and most desired brands in the luxury watch industry, the Swiss legend draws upon its active engagement in the world of sports to create the most accurate timing instruments and watches in the world. TAG Heuer is the first watchmaker to master luxury chronographs with an unsurpassed precision of 1/10th, 1/100th and 1/1,000th of a second. From the Olympic Games in the 1920s to its role as official timekeeper to within 1/10,000th of a second for the legendary Indy 500, TAG Heuer, in a constant quest for innovation, excellence, performance and prestige, continues to aim ever higher. This is reflected in its quarter-century partnership with F1 team Vodafone McLaren Mercedes, its 7-year partnership with 2008 Formula 1 World Champion, Vodafone McLaren Mercedes driver Lewis Hamilton, and his new teammate , 2009 Formula 1 World Champion Jenson Button. TAG Heuer, more than ever, epitomizes prestige and performance through active partnerships with Hollywood icon Leonardo DiCaprio and Bollywood star Shah Rukh Khan, LPGA star Suzann Pettersen and WTA tennis champion Maria Sharapova. TAG Heuer is a privileged member of the Fondation de la Haute Horlogerie (FHH), the most exclusive club in the Swiss watchmaking industry. The newest addition to the TAG Heuer legacy is the Calibre 1887, an in-house, Swiss manufactured, integrated column-wheel chronograph movement that pays tribute to the original Heuer oscillating pinion of 1887, one of the brand's first patents and a major benchmark in modern watchmaking. From March through October 2010, TAG Heuer's revolutionary and ecologically conscious "Odyssey of Pioneers" exhibit, the first-ever round-the-world trip in a 100% electric car designed specifically by Tesla Motors for TAG Heuer, will showcase in Olympic flame fashion the brand's past, present and future collections across 15 key cities of the world.

Energy Crops Impact Environmental Quality

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What happens to the soil when you remove the plants?

Crop residues, perennial warm season grasses, and short-rotation woody crops are potential biomass sources for cellulosic ethanol production. While most research is focused on the conversion of cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol and increasing production of biomass, the impacts of growing energy crops and the removal of crop residue on soil and environmental quality have received less attention. Moreover, effects of crop residue removal on soil and environmental quality have not been compared against those of dedicated energy crops.

In the March-April 2010 issue of Agronomy Journal, published by the American Society of Agronomy, Dr. Humberto Blanco reviewed the impacts of crop residue removal, warm season grasses, and short-rotation woody crops on critical soil properties, carbon sequestration, and water quality as well as the performance of energy crops in marginal lands. The review found that crop residue removal from corn, wheat, and grain sorghum cane adversely impact soil and environmental quality. Removal of more than 50% of crop residue can have negative consequences for soil structure, reduce soil organic carbon sequestration, increase water erosion, and reduce nutrient cycling and crop production, particularly in erodible and sloping soils.

"Crop residue removal can make no-till soils a source rather than a sink of atmospheric carbon," says Blanco, even at rates lower than 50%. Residue removal at rates of less than 25% can cause loss of sediment in runoff relative to soils without residue removal. To avoid the negative impacts on soil, perhaps only a small fraction of residue might be available for removal. This small amount of crop residues is not economically feasible nor logistically possible. Blanco recommends developing other alternative biomass feedstock sources for cellulosic ethanol production.

An alternative to crop residue removal is growing warm season grasses and short-rotation woody crops as dedicated energy crops. These crops can provide a wide of range of ecosystems services over crop residue removal. Available data indicate that herbaceous and woody plants can improve soil characteristics, reduce soil water and wind erosion, filter pollutants in runoff, sequester soil organic carbon, reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases, and improve wildlife habitat and diversity.

Whereas crop residue removal reduces carbon concentration, dedicated energy crops can increase soil organic carbon concentration while providing biofuel feedstock. Because of their deep root systems, warm season grasses also promote long-term carbon sequestration in deeper soil profile unlike row crops.

Growing dedicated energy crops in marginal and abandoned lands instead of prime agricultural fields will further benefit the soil and environment. Warm season grasses can grow in nutrient-depleted, compacted, poorly drained, acid, and eroded soils. Herbaceous and woody energy crops cannot replace natural forest and native prairie lands, but well-managed dedicated energy crops may provide a myriad of benefits to soil and environment while supplying much needed feedstocks for cellulosic ethanol production. Developing the next generation of biofuels will not only require new technologies to transform it into fuel, but new agricultural methods for growing it.

Saturday, April 10, 2010

No hydel project sans environmental clearance, says Ramesh

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Kolkata: The Centre will not go ahead with any proposed hydel power project in the country if it fails to receive environmental clearance and the people's acceptance, Union environment minister Jairam Ramesh said here today.

"We are now waiting for an environment impact report on the proposed hydel power projects on Teesta, Bhagirathi and Alakananda rivers. Without cooperation from people we can't
implement any such project," Ramesh told reporters after
attending a workshop here.

On the controversies surrounding another proposed hydel power project at Tipaimukh Dam in Manipur, Ramesh said that even as the project was cleared in principle, the Centre would give it a fresh look considering the heat it has generated in both Manipur and Bangladesh.

Ramesh was speaking in the presence of his Bangladesh counterpart Hasan Mahmud, who did not make any comment. "We must ensure that ties between the two countries remain
unaffected," Ramesh said.

Tipaimukh Dam is a proposed hydel power project on Barak river in Manipur. The project sparked controversy as India plans to build the dam just 100 km off the Bangladesh border.

Thursday, April 08, 2010

Harmful Effects of Smoking

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*Every year hundreds of thousands of people around the world die from diseases caused by smoking cigarettes - Smoking KILLS.

*One in two lifetime smokers will die from their habit. Half of these deaths will occur in middle age.

*Tobacco smoke also contributes to a number of cancers.

*The mixture of nicotine and carbon monoxide in each cigarette you smoke temporarily increases your heart rate and blood pressure, straining your heart and blood vessels.

*This can cause heart attacks and stroke. It slows your blood flow, cutting off oxygen to your feet and hands. Some smokers end up having their limbs
amputated.

*Tar coats your lungs like soot in a chimney and causes cancer. A 20-a-day smoker breathes in up to a full cup (210 g) of tar in a year.

*Changing to low-tar cigarettes does not help because smokers usually take deeper puffs and hold the smoke in for longer, dragging the tar deeper into their lungs.

*Carbon monoxide robs your muscles, brain and body tissue of oxygen, making your whole body and especially your heart work harder. Over time, your airways swell up and let less air into your lungs.

*Smoking causes disease and is a slow way to die. The strain of smoking effects on the body often causes years of suffering. Emphysema is an illness that slowly rots your lungs. People with emphysema often get bronchitis again and again, and suffer lung and heart failure.

*Lung cancer from smoking is caused by the tar in tobacco smoke. Men who smoke are ten times more likely to die from lung cancer than non-smokers.

*Heart disease and strokes are also more common among smokers than non-smokers.

*Smoking causes fat deposits to narrow and block blood vessels which leads to heart attack.

*Smoking causes around one in five deaths from heart disease.

*In younger people, three out of four deaths from heart disease are due to smoking.

*Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of low birth weight, prematurity, spontaneous abortion, and perinatal mortality in humans, which has been referred to as the fetal tobacco syndrome.

Tuesday, April 06, 2010

Polluting Environment... isn't it a sin?

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Environmental Toxins

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Environmental Toxins & Your Health

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Saturday, April 03, 2010

Pepsi refresh project: An environmental initiative by Pepsi

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Pepsi has initiated a project called 'Pepsi Refresh Project' which is an eco-friendly drive. In order to facilitate the great, no matter big or small ideas in this respect Pepsi has announced to give away prizes worth 1.3 million dollars every month.

PEPSI HAS been refreshing people with its drinks for long, but this time Pepsi is trying to refresh people by launching an eco-friendly project for betterment of environment on the planet.

Pepsi has initiated a project called 'Pepsi Refresh Project'. In order to facilitate the great, no matter big or small ideas in this respect Pepsi has announced to give away prizes worth 1.3 million dollars every month.
The ideas are invited from the US citizens only under the categories Art and Culture, Planet, Health, neighbourhood, education, food and shelter. The prize distribution includes two grants of 250, 000 dollars, ten grants of 50,000 dollars, 25,000 dollars and 5,000 dollars each. There will be 32 recipients of the award each month.


Each month a maximum of thousand ideas will be selected. The winners amongst those selected will be decided by the citizens of US through online polling. The winner will be awarded the prize amount and a time period of 12 months to implement the idea.
The most interesting thing is that the 100 runner-up ideas will get transferred to the next months contest, but the voting will start afresh.


Pepsi is doing its bit in terms of social responsibility for a better tomorrow for the citizens of US. The project has attracted a lot of fans across US

Friday, April 02, 2010

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India is failing its rural poor with 230 million people being undernourished — the highest for any country in the world. Malnutrition accounts for nearly 50% of child deaths in India as every third adult (aged 15-49 years) is reported to be thin (BMI less than 18.5).
India ranks 94th in the Global Hunger Index of 119 countries, the report said.

Beyond climate change: Reframing the dialogue over environmental issues

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TRAVELING in India the past two months has impressed on me the breadth and urgency of the world's environmental crisis. After decades of sustained growth following the "green revolution" in the 1960s, Indian crop yields no longer keep up with population growth.

Topsoil is becoming depleted of natural chemical nutrients so that increasing applications of chemical fertilizers are required to sustain high crop yields. Cropland is being lost to urbanization and topsoil is being stripped from fields to make bricks. Excess nitrogen from fertilizers in the runoff is polluting rivers and wetlands. Water tables are plummeting in response to shortsighted management practices such as "water mining" from deep wells to increase yields of dry-season crops.

Some highly regarded Indian ecologists are concerned about the risk of future biodiversity losses because of the introduction of genetically engineered plant species. India's tiger population is reportedly down to about 1,400. People are sickened by toxic waste from factories producing goods for consumption in developed countries. The list goes on.

Media coverage of India's looming environmental crisis has been eclipsed by the debate about long-term future impacts of global climate change. The revelation that the Himalayan glaciers are not retreating as rapidly as reported in the Fourth Assessment Report of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been front-page news in India day after day. Readers of these news stories could easily come away with the impression that the immediacy of the environmental crisis has been exaggerated when, in fact, it is not being given sufficient emphasis.

It's tempting to blame the media for fixating on global warming, but we climate scientists are partly to blame for the misplaced emphasis. Over the past 20 years we have stood by and watched as governmental and nongovernmental organizations that deal with environmental issues became more and more narrowly focused on the long-term impacts of global warming.

Meanwhile, more imminent issues relating to the sustainability of our planet's life-support system under the pressures of growing human population and the widening gap between rich and poor are not getting the attention they deserve.

By failing to foster creation of robust, broad-based advisory mechanisms, we have allowed the IPCC assessment reports to become the dominant vehicle for representing the views of the scientific community on a widening range of environmental issues. In the IPCC terminology, symptoms of environmental degradation, regardless of their cause, are labeled as impacts of climate change, and the societal response to them is framed in terms of mitigating and adapting to climate change.

Scientists still write papers and speak to the media about environmental concerns outside of the purview of the IPCC, but with so much of the world's attention riveted on climate change there is a lack of institutional infrastructure for calling attention to other issues.

Labeling issues such as reduced agricultural productivity, loss of biodiversity, pollution and the looming shortage of fresh water as "impacts of global warming" leaves the public confused and susceptible to propaganda by groups who oppose environmental regulation of any kind. With the IPCC increasingly in the spotlight, the denialists can trivialize the entire environmental crisis simply by casting doubt on the scientific consensus on global warming.

Climate scientists and their detractors are slugging it out every day in blogs and editorial pages while legislative initiatives to get governments to address environmental and resource issues remain stalled, despite broad public support for them.

At the recent Copenhagen Summit, the nations of the world were reluctant to make binding agreements to reduce their production of greenhouse gases. Given the limited public understanding of the intricacies of climate science, the human tendency to be more concerned with current issues than with what the climate will be like 100 years from now, and the glaring inequities in per capita fossil fuel consumption between countries like the United States and those like India, justifying an enlightened energy policy on the basis of concerns about global warming is a tough sell.

The negotiations might have gone better had the justification been framed in terms of conserving the world's dwindling oil reserves, stabilizing oil prices and promoting energy independence.

The current stalemate is likely to persist as long as scientists allow climate change to dominate the environmental policy agenda. In order to promote a more productive dialogue between scientists and policymakers, the discussion of adaptation and mitigation options in the policy arena needs to be reframed so that it addresses environmental degradation and sustainability in the broad sense, not just the impacts of climate change.